A Phobia is an irrational, unrealistic or exaggerated fear response to a specific trigger object, activity, or situation that in reality presents little danger.
Common phobias include fear of animals (such as dogs, snakes and spiders), fear of flying, and fear of heights. For severe phobias, you might go to extreme lengths to avoid the thing you fear.
A phobia is an overwhelming and debilitating fear of an object, place, situation, feeling or animal.
Phobias are more pronounced than fears. They develop when a person has an exaggerated or unrealistic sense of danger about a situation or object.
If a phobia becomes very severe, a person may organise their life around avoiding the thing that's causing them anxiety. As well as restricting their day-to-day life, it can also cause a lot of distress.
All phobias can limit your daily activities and may cause severe anxiety and depression. Complex phobias, such as agoraphobia, social phobia and emetophobia, are more likely to cause these symptoms.
People with phobias often purposely avoid coming into contact with the thing that causes them fear and anxiety. For example, someone with a fear of spiders (arachnophobia) may not want to touch a spider or even look at a picture of one.
In some cases, a person can develop a phobia where they become fearful of experiencing anxiety itself because it feels so uncomfortable.
You don't have to be in the situation you're fearful of to experience the symptoms of panic. The brain is able to create a reaction to fearsome situations even when you aren't actually in the situation.
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder. You may not experience any symptoms until you come into contact with the source of your phobia.
However, in some cases, even thinking about the source of a phobia can make a person feel anxious or panicky. This is known as anticipatory anxiety.
Symptoms may include:
If you don't come into contact with the source of your phobia very often, it may not affect your everyday life.
However, if you have a complex phobia (see later) such as agoraphobia, social phobia or emetophobia, leading a normal life may be very difficult.
Phobias are the most common type of anxiety disorder.
They can affect anyone, regardless of age, sex and social background.
Some of the most common phobias include:
There are a wide variety of objects or situations that someone could develop a phobia about. However, phobias can be divided into two main categories:
The two categories are discussed below.
Specific or simple phobias centre around a particular object, animal, situation or activity.
They often develop during childhood or adolescence and may become less severe as you get older.
Common examples of simple phobias include:
Complex phobias tend to be more disabling than simple phobias. They tend to develop during adulthood and are often associated with a deep-rooted fear or anxiety about a particular situation or circumstance.
The three most common complex phobias are:
Often thought of as a fear of open spaces, but Agoraphobia is much more complex than this. Someone with agoraphobia will feel anxious about being in a place or situation where escaping may be difficult if they have a panic attack.
The anxiety usually results in the person avoiding situations such as:
Also known as social anxiety disorder, social phobia centres around feeling anxious in social situations.
If you have a social phobia, you might be afraid of speaking in front of people for fear of embarrassing yourself and being humiliated in public.
In severe cases, this can become debilitating and may prevent you from carrying out everyday activities, such as eating out or meeting friends.
Often thought of as being simply a fear of vomiting, or a fear of being sick, but the effects of emetophobia can be far much more wide ranging and debilitating.
Someone with emetophobia will feel anxious about being in a place or situation where someone might be sick, or where escaping may be difficult if they are in the presence of someone who might vomit or who is vomiting. So emetophobia sufferers might well, for example, avoid using late night public transport, for fear of a late night reveller vomiting nearby on either the bus, tube or platform.
Similarly emetophobia sufferers may well exhbit excessive cleanliness, and be unusually concerned about picking up a bug, or being ill, for fear that it will lead to them having to vomit.
Many people with emetophobia also experience anger, frustration and despair at not being understood, believed or supported – especially about the severity of the feelings of terror and horror.
Other secondary fears that may arise as a result of emetophobia include:
Phobias don't have a single cause, but there are a number of associated factors. For example:
Phobias aren't usually formally diagnosed. Most people with a phobia are fully aware of the problem - although some might put it down to them 'just being the way they are' - not realising that they really don't have to be that way.
A person will sometimes choose to live with a phobia, taking great care to avoid the object or situation they're afraid of. However, if you have a phobia, continually trying to avoid what you're afraid of will make the situation worse.
Almost all phobias can be treated successfully.
Hypnosis, Hypnotherapy, Psychotherapy and Counselling can be used in combination to successfully treat fears and phobias.
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